Besides (preposisi) semakna dengan „in addition to‟ yang berarti „lagi pula‟, „selain‟ yang berfungsi menambah informasi. Kata ini mengawali noun/ prononun/ gerund.
Besides doing the cooking, I look after the garden
Besides this house, Fini has a beach home
Besides (adverb) berarti „lagi pula‟ mengawali klausa,
I can‟t go now; I am busy. Besides, my passport is out of date.
Fitri doesn‟t want to go, besides she has already been there. Kata „moreover‟ dapat menggantikan „besides‟ dalam situasi yang lebih formal.
2.12.2 However (namun demikian)
Mengawali kata sifat/ kata keterangan. Pernyataan yang di awali „however‟ berkontradiksi dengan pernyataan lainnya.
You could not earn much, however hard you work.
However semakna dengan „but‟, „nevertheless‟, yang mana sering mengawali suatu kalimat. I‟d like to go; however, I don‟t have the time.
Otherwise (sebaliknya, kalau tidak)
Menyatakan kemungkinan akibat yang tidak di harapkan kalau pernyataan sebelumnya/ lainnya tidak terpenuhi.
We must be early; otherwise we won‟t get seat.
Conjunction „or‟ bisa menggantikan kedudukan otherwise, selain menyatakan pilihan.
You got with me, or you stay here alone.
So (sehingga, oleh karena itu, makannya)
Menunjukan akibat yang terjadi dari pernyataan sebelumnya.
Our cases were too heavy, se we took a taxi.
Apabila „so‟ mengawalli kata sifat (adjective)/ kata keterangan (adverb) „so‟ harus di rangkai dengan kata „that‟ dan membentuk arti „begitu … sehingga…‟
They ran so fast that I couldn‟t beat them. (I couldn‟t beat them because they ran fast)
Therefore (Oleh Karenanya)
„Therefore‟ mengawali kalimat yang menunjukan akibat dalalm suatu kalimat sebab-akibat.
There is fog on Chicago; therefore, the place has been diverted.
Conjunction consequently hampir sama dengan „therefore‟.
Still and yet sebagai conjunction mempunyai arti sama yaitu „namun‟ menunjukan sesuatu yang kontradiksi.
They are ugly and expensive; yet/still, people buy them.
Though/ although, in spite of/ despite (walaupun)
Menunjukan kalimat yang bertentangan. Although selamanya diikuti klausa sedangkan in spite of/ despite mengawali frase (noun/pronoun/gerund).
Though/ although he had no qualification, he got the job.
In spite of having no qualification, he got the job.
Although it was windy, he continued the cruise.
In spite of/ despite the wind, he continued the cruise.
For, because, since (karena)
Digunakan dalam kalimat sebab akibat.
Since/because it was wet, he took a taxi.
The days were short, for/since it was not December.
As/ when/ while (ketika, tatkala/ sementara)
Menunjukan waktu saat terjadinya sesuatu.
My father came as/ when I was studying.
Namun terkadang „as‟ bisa bermakna ganda: tatkala atau karena.
As a student, he had known great poverty
Example: She can‟t travel whereas she has a lot of money
Exercise for Conjunction
1. We are now ___ dependent no computers that it is hard to imagine what things would be like today without them.
(A) after (C) such (E) as well as
(B) Before (D) so
2. In the future, computers will be ___ a complex device that no individual could hope to understand how they work.
(A) however (C) such (E) until
(B) so (D) since
3. “What did your father say when you told him you had lost all your money?”
He was so angry ___ he couldn‟t say anything.
(A) therefore (C) that (E) when
(B) after (D) so
4. „Why didn‟t you print your report at home?‟
„I ran out of ink for my printer. It‟s ___ expensive that I can‟t afford it.‟
(A) such (C) so (E) very much
(B) very (D) such an
5. “Was there any violence during last week‟s demonstration?”
“No, ___ there were thousands of demonstrators”
(A) since (C) because (E) in spite
(B) even though (D) as
6. Smoking can be the cause of many illnesses and respiratory disorders; ___, it may harm non smokers.
(A) whereas (C) in addition (E) otherwise
(B) however (D) nevertheless
7. “Mom, why do you insist on my wearing a jacket?”
“ ___ I‟m sure it‟s going to be very cold?”
(A) Until (C) Although (E) Even though
(B) Since (D) So that
8. “How was the exam?”
“It was not easy ___ I am sure I can pass.”
(A) And (C) therefore (E) so
(B) but (D) causequently
9. ___ there people have died of cholera, the old people of the village refuse to get an injection against it.
(A) Although (C) In spite of (E) As
(B) Because (D) Since
10. ___ most people know that the success of a television show is measured by its rating‟s, few know exactly how show are rated.
(A) Although (C) Since (E) Because
(B) However (D) Nevertheless